Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a haemorrhagic fever caused by Ebola virus. It is a severe often fatal illness in humans. Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals. In Africa, infection has been documented through the handling of infected chimpanzees, gorillas, fruit bats, monkeys, forest antelope and porcupines found ill or dead or in the rainforest.
Ebola then spreads in the community through human-to-human transmission, with infection resulting from direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and indirect contact with environments contaminated with such fluids. The virus is often spread through families, friends and health care workers because they come in contact with bodily fluids when caring for infected patients.
Cases of Ebola Virus Disease have been reported in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria.
There is currently no vaccine or treatment for EVD. In the absence of effective treatment and a human vaccine, raising awareness of the risk factors for Ebola infection and the protective measures individuals can take is the only way to reduce human infection and death.
A way to prevent the transmission of EVD is to practice good personal and environmental hygiene. A very effective way of deactivating the virus is by washing your hands with appropriate dilutions of sodium hypochlorite.
Our team of pharmaceutical care practitioners have come up with guidelines on how to dilute sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Material required for the dilution of sodium hypochlorite can be purchased in any supermarket or local market. The sodium hypochlorite brands available in the market are “Hypo” (3.5%w/v) and “Jik” (3.85%w/v).
Procedures for diluting hypo (3.5%w/v sodium hypochlorite solution) for hand washing are provided below according to the final volumes desired.
Step 1: Get your materials ready. Ensure they are thoroughly cleaned and ready to be used. The material you will needs are;
- Sachet(s) of hypo (sodium hypochlorite 3.5%w/v),
- A bucket with a tap
- Clean water source
Plastic containers (sizes according to preferred volume: 2 Litres, 5 Litres, 20 Litres, 25 Litres) and a table spoon (10ml).
Step 2: Fill the containers with clean water to the upper indented /edge level (marked with arrows in the picture above). L represents for Litres.
Step 3: The dilution methods are as follows:
2 Litres of water should be used to dilute 30ml of hypo. The hypo sachet is 75ml. The 10 ml tablespoon should be used to measure 30ml of hypo.
- 1 sachet of hypo should be added to 5litres of water
- 4 sachet of hypo (4x75ml=300ml) should be added to 20 litres of water
- 5 sachet of hypo (5x75ml=735ml) should be added to 25 litres of water
Step 4: Cut open the sachet carefully with the aid of a pair of scissors
Step 5: Pour content from sachet(s) into your prefilled container with water and cover container.
Step 6: Shake the container carefully. It is also advised to allow the mixture stand for 30 minutes to allow the absolute disinfection of the water.
Step 7: Pour the diluted solution from your container into your bucket with tap.
Precautionary Measures while handling Hypo (sodium hypochlorite).
- Do not inhale or swallow
- Prevent spillage of the sachet content and avoid direct contact with skin and eye
- Keep away from children
If exposed, do the following:
|First Aid Skin||Wash off with water.
|First Aid Eyes||Flush eyes with water for 15 minutes.
Hold eyelids open while washing.
Seek medical attention.
|First Aid Ingested||Do not induce vomiting.
Give large amounts of water.
Seek medical attention.
|First Aid Inhalation||Remove from contaminated area.
Seek medical attention
How to wash your hands
- Wet your hands, apply soap and diluted household bleach solution provided (diluted hypo solution).
- Rub hands together vigorously and scrub all surfaces.
- Continue washing for 20 seconds! It takes that long for the soap and scrubbing action to dislodge and remove stubborn germs.
- Need a timer? Imagine singing “Happy Birthday” all the way through – twice!
Rinse hands well under running water.
Procedures for diluting “JIK” (3.85%w/v sodium hypochlorite solution) for hand washing are provided below according to the final volumes desired.
Step 1: Get material clean and ready for use. The materials needed are; bucket with tap, plastic containers (sizes according to preferred volume- 2 Litres, 5 Litres, 20 Litres, 25 Litres), JIK (sodium hypochlorite 3.85%w/v) (500mls or 1 Litre bottle size), measuring cylinder (1000ml or 100ml) and clean water source.
Step 2: Fill containers with water like explained in the tutorial for the dilution of hypo.
Step 3: The dilution methods are as follows:
- Measure out 26ml of Jik solution with the aid of a 100ml measuring cylinder from the Jik bottle and pour into the 2 Litres container filled with water.
- Measure out 65mls of Jik solution with the aid of a 100ml measuring cylinder from the Jik bottle and pour into the 5 litres container filled with water
- Measure out 260mls of Jik solution with the aid of a 1000mls measuring cylinder from the Jik bottle and pour into the 20 litres container filled with water.
- Measure out 325mls of Jik solution with the aid of a 1000mls measuring cylinder from the Jik bottle and pour into the 25 container filled with water.
Step 4: Cover and shake container carefully. It is also advised to allow the mixture stand for 30 minutes to allow absolute disinfection of the water itself
Step 5: Fill your bucket with the diluted solution from your container and use to wash your hands as directed above.
Article contributors– Femi Daramola (Logistics Officer), Ibrahim Kuku (Pharmacy Associate) and Itohan Aimuan (Grants Intern)
Abuja, 02 September 2015: A midterm review to assess the performance of two implementation research projects supported by WHO in Nigeria and implemented by the Centre for Integrated Health Program (CIHP) and Institute of Human Virology, Nigeria (IHVN) has ended in Nigeria’s capital Abuja with promising results. The two projects which are known as INSPIRE (INtegrating and Scaling up Pmtct through Implementation REsearch) is a collaboration between the World Health Organization and Ministries of Health in Nigeria, Malawi and Zimbabwe and funded by the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade, and Development (DFATD).
The 5-year projects which commenced in 2012 are aimed at examining whether Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) has the potential to increase Prevention of Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT) uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (LJM) and determining the impact of Mentor Mother Programs on PMTCT Service uptake and retention.
To read more about INSPIRE project and findings from its Midterm Review, click on the link below
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